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POLICE STATE / MILITARY -
-

Telephone Records are just the Tip of NSA's Iceberg

Posted in the database on Sunday, May 14th, 2006 @ 15:39:59 MST (3044 views)
by William Arkin    The Washington Post  

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The National Security Agency and other U.S. government organizations have developed hundreds of software programs and analytic tools to "harvest" intelligence, and they've created dozens of gigantic databases designed to discover potential terrorist activity both inside the United States and overseas.

These cutting edge tools -- some highly classified because of their functions and capabilities -- continually process hundreds of billions of what are called "structured" data records, including telephone call records and e-mail headers contained in information "feeds" that have been established to flow into the intelligence agencies.

The multi-billion dollar program, which began before 9/11 but has been accelerated since then. Well over 100 government contractors have participated, including both small boutique companies whose products include commercial off-the-shelf software and some of the largest defense contractors, who have developed specialized software and tools exclusively for government use.

USA Today provided a small window into this massive intelligence community program by reporting yesterday that the NSA was collecting and analyzing millions of telephone call records.

The call records are "structured data," that is, information maintained in a standardized format that can be easily analyzed by machine programs without human intervention. They're different from intercepts of actual communication between people in that they don't contain the "content" of the communications -- content that the Supreme Court has ruled is protected under the Fourth Amendment. You can think of call records as what's outside the envelope, as opposed to what's on the inside.

Once collected, the call records and other non-content communication are being churned through a mind boggling network of software and data mining tools to extract intelligence. And this NSA dominated program of ingestion, digestion, and distribution of potential intelligence raises profound questions about the privacy and civil liberties of all Americans.

Although there is no evidence that the harvesting programs have been involved in illegal activity or have been abused to reach into the lives of innocent Americans, their sheer scope, the number of "transactions" being tracked, raises questions as to whether an all-seeing domestic surveillance system isn't slowly being established, one that in just a few years time will be able to reveal the interactions of any targeted individual in near real time.

In late November 1998, the intelligence community and the Department of Defense established the Advanced Research and Development Activity in Information Technology (ARDA), a government consortium charged with incubating and developing "revolutionary" research and development in the field of intelligence processing.

The Director of the National Security Agency (NSA) agreed to establish, as a component of the NSA, an organizational unit to carry out the functions of ARDA, overseeing the research program of the CIA, DIA, National Reconnaissance Office, and other defense and civilian intelligence agencies.

Beginning before 9/11, ARDA established an "information exploitation" program to fund and focus private research on operationally-relevant problems of exploiting the increasing torrents of digital data available to the intelligence community. Even with thousands of analysts, NSA and other agencies were falling behind in their ability to handle the volume of incoming material. Existing mainframe machine aided processes were also falling behind advances in information processing, particularly as the cost of computing power dramatically declined in the 1990s.

The information exploitation research program has funded hundreds of projects to find better ways to "pull" information, "push" information, and "navigate" and visualize information once assembled.

Pulling information refers to the ability of supported analysts to have question and answer capabilities. Starting with a known requirement, an analyst could submit questions to a Q&A system which in turn would "pull" the relevant information out of multiple data sources and repositories. NSA is seeking a Q&A system that can operate autonomously to interpret "pulled" information and provide automatic responses back to the analysts with little additional human intervention.

Pushing information refers to the software tools that would "blindly" and without supervision push intelligence to analysts even if they had not asked for the information. Research has sought to go beyond current data mining of "structured" records deeper profiling of massive unstructured data collections. Under the pushing information research thrust companies have been involved in efforts to uncover previously undetected patterns of activity from massive data sets. Software and tools are also being developed that will provide alerts to analysts when changes occur in newly arrived, but unanalyzed massive data collections, such as telephone records.

The effort to navigate and visualize information seeks to develop analytic tools that will allow agency analysts to take hundreds or even thousands of small pieces of information and automatically create a tailored and logical "picture" of that information. Using visualization tools and techniques, intelligence analysts are constantly seeking out previously unknown links and connections between individual pieces of information.

Intelligence community efforts to process "structured" data includes data-tagged signals intelligence (SIGINT) monitoring of telephone and radio communications, imagery, human intelligence reporting, and "open-source" commercial data, including news media reporting. "Unstructured" data includes news and Internet video and audio and document exploitation.

I could write volumes about the research efforts and the software programs and tools used to process the mountains of information the NSA and other agencies ingest. No doubt over the coming days and weeks, more will be written. For today though, I provide a pointer, based upon my research, of software, tools and intelligence databases that I have been able to identify in government documents relating to data mining, link analysis, and ingestion, digestion, and distribution of intelligence. My hope would be that other journalists and researchers will follow the leads.

The following is a list of some 500 software tools, databases, data mining and processing efforts contracted for, under development or in use at the NSA and other intelligence agencies today:

A2IPB

ABA

ABC Terrorism Prediction Model

ABIS (Automated Biometric Identification System)

AC2

ACCO (Army Central Control Office) counter-intelligence investigations database

ACOA

ACTOR (Analyzing Complex Threats for Operations and Readiness)

Adversary

AeroText

AFIS (Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems)

AIES (Automated Information Extraction System)

AIM

AIR (Arabic Information Retrieval):

Aira Data Mining Tool

AIPSA (Automated Intel Processing for Situational Awareness)

aiSee

AKA

ALADDIN (Automated Link Analysis for Data Mining of Distributed Information)

ALE (Aires Life Extension)

Alembic

ALICE d'ISoft

Alien Migration db

Alterian Nucleus

AME (analyst modeling environment)

Analyst Notebook/Analyst Notebook Link Chart Reader

Analyst Workbench

Anchory

AnswerTree

Answerer

AOCG (automated org-chart generation)

APOLLO

Aquarius

ARENA

ARM

ART (Author-Recipient-Topic)

ASAS (All Source Analysis System)/ASAS-L with MAST

ASID (Automated Systems Integration Management Intelligence Database)

ASIM (Automated Security Incident Measurement)

Association

AT Sigma Data Chopper

ATHENA

ATIX (Anti-Terrorism Information Exchange/Automated Trusted Information Exchange):

AUDITT

AutoMap

Autonomy

Automatic Identification System

Automated Warning Prototype

Auto-X tools

AutoTrackXP (ATXP)

AXIS (Analysis and eXploration of Information Sources)

AVS/Express Visualization Edition

Basketball

BioWar

Blackknight

Blue Data Miner

BNN (Broadcast News Navigator)

Breve

Broadbase EPM (Enter Perf Mgmt)

Brocade

BUILDINGCODE

BusinessMiner

C2PC

CADRE (Continuous Analysis and Discovery from Relational Evidence)

CamStudio

Camps

Capri

Carillon

CART

CASIAT (Computer Assisted Security Investigative Analysis Tool)

Categorizer/Tree Studio

CATEIS (Counterintelligence Automated Tactical Exploitation & Information Software)

CCDB (Consolidated Counterdrug Data Base)

CCIP (Counterterrorism Collaboration Interoperability Project)

CCM

Centrifuge

CETA

Chassis

CHATS (CI/HUMINT Automation Tool Set)

Checkpoint

CHIMS (CI/HUMINT Information Management System)

CHINET (Chinese Name Extraction and Translation)

Choicepoint

CIA TD/TDX

CiceroLite:

CIDAR (Critical Infrastructure Detection, Analysis and Reporting)

CIM (Critical Intent Model)

CIM/SEAS Nested Argumentation

CIPA (Counter Insurgency Pattern Assessment)

CIRC

CIS (Case Information System)

CITF (Criminal Investigative Task Force) Web-enabled Database

CJMTK

Clear Case

Clear Quest

ClearForest

ClearResearch

Clementine

CMS (Case Management System)

Cobra Focus

CODIS (Combined DNA Index System)

CoGen

COGNET

Cognos (COTS Tool for Report Generation)

Coliseum

Conceptual Model of Counter-Terrorism Operations

Constant Web

Construct

Content Analyst

Context

Convera

Cornerstone

Coverterm

CPOF

CPXP

CrimeLink

CrissCross

CrossGraphs

CTAC (Counter-Terrorism Analysis Capability)

CTDB (Combating Terrorism Database)

CT-AVRS/CT-AVARS (Combined Theater - Analyst Vetted Relational System/Combined

Theater Analyst-Vetted, Relational, Structured Database)

Cubist

Cultweave/Cultweave II

CyberLINXX

CyberTrans

CYC

Darwin

Data Clarity

Data Detective

Data Logic/RDS

DataMiner 3D

Data mining suite

DataMite

DataScope

Data Serfer

DataSurferPlus

Data Surveyor

DB2

dbProbe

DCIIS

DECIDE

DecisionWORKS

DeltaMiner

Diamond

DIAZ

DIMS (Detainee Information Management System)

DNA (Dynamic Network Analysis)

Dollar-Dinar db ($$)

DOORS

Dream Media

DTES

DyNet

Eagle Eye

EARS

EASYBORDER

EICK

EKM

Elite Network Modeling

Emergejust (EJ)

Enterprise Miner

ENVIE (Extensible News Video Exploitation for Intelligence Analysis)

Envision

EP

FaceIt

FactBrowser

Fair Isaac

Fascia

FAST DIAMOND US

FAST ISSM

FAST toolbox for OOTW

FastTalk

Fastus/TextPro

FatCat

FeedDemon

Festival

FINTEL

FOMA

FORECITE Monitor

Foreign terrorism communication profile database

Foundationstone

Fraud Investigator

Freedom

Fulcrum Knowledge Server

GATE (General Architecture for Text Engineering)

GBAE (Glass Box Analytical Environment)

GCS

GDA

GDM-FC

Geo-Browser

Genysis

GeoTagger

GIDI

GIP (Generic Intelligence Processor)

Glide

Graphlet

GRAPHVIZ/graphvis

Grindstone

Groove Workspace:

Groundbreaker

Group Discovery Algorithm

Guardian

Harvester

HD Map

HIDTA DIG (High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas Digital Information Gateway)

Highpoint

HIS (HUMINT Imagery Server)

Homebase/Homebase II

HMSng (HUMINT Management System next generation)

HPS (HUMINT Processing System)

Hydrant

i2 Visual Notebook:

IAA (Intelligence Analyst Associate)

IAFIS (Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System)

iBase

IBM Intelligence Miner for Data

IBM MT:

IC ROSE

IdentiFinder

IDP (Intelligence discovery portal)

IDW (Investigative Data Warehouse)

IE CounterDrug

IES (IIR Evaluation System)

IFS (Intelligence Fusion System)

ILS

iMapData

IMPACT (Intelligent Mining Platform for the Analysis of Counter Terrorism)

InCLUEsion

Indri

InFact

InfoMASQ

Informix Red Brick Formation

InfoWorkspace

InfoXtract

INQUEST

IN-SPIRE

Insta-Know

Intelligent Miner for Text

Intelligenxia

InterSCOPE 3-D Geospatial Visualization

INTREPID (Intelligence and Terrorist Photograph Identification Database)

IR Discover

ISM (InfoSphere Management System)

ITN (Identification Tasking and Network)

IWS

Jabber

Jaguar

JDS

JMIE

Juggernaut

JWARN (Joint Warning System)

KATE-DataMining

KDD Explorer/SRA KDD Explorer

Keycard

KeyPlayer

KnowledgeSEEKER

KnowledgeSTUDIO

LADS (Linkage Analysis Database System)

LAS

LAW (Link Analysis Workbench)

LDS (Lotus Discovery Server)

LEADMiner (NIPS)

LEMUR

LexiQuest Mine

LingPipe

LingSoft

LinkView

LSI (Latent Semantic Indexer)

Mage

Mailorder

Mainway

Malolo

Malta

MAPLE

MARS

MatView

MAUI NITE

MayaVis

Media Manager

METIS

METS (Metadata Extraction and Tagging Service)

MindManager

MINDS (Multilingual Interactive Document Summarization)

MINER

Minerva

MineSet

MiTAP (MITRE Text and Audio Processing)

MODEL 1

Modus Operandi Database

Mohomine

MPES

Name Variant

NameStats

NDA (name data archive)

NDCore

NDEx (National Data Exchange)

NDPIX (National Drug Pointer Index)

NER (named entity extraction)

Nested Vision 3D

NetDraw

Netica

NetMap Analytics

NetMiner

NetOwl/Net Owl

NETVIZ

NexMiner

NLP++

Noöscape

NORMALLAW

NORA (Non-Obvious Relationship Analysis)

NorthernLight

NRM (NSA Reference Model)

Nuggets

Oasis

ObjectFX

OCULIS

OMNIDEX

OnTap

OnTopic

Open Visualization Data Explorer

Optionspace Visualization

ORA

Orion

ORIONMagic

OSALAT (Open Source Automated Link Analysis Tool)

Outline/Magic

Overwatch

PAC (Portal Automated Collection)

Pajek

Paladin

Pantheon

PASSGEAR

PathFinder

PEAC-WMDv5 Decision Support tool

Pen-Link

Pensa

Pinpoint

PINWALE

Pipeline

PIRANHA

Plus

Polaris

PolyAnalyst

PowerDrill

Powerplant

PPS

Procon

Project Foundry

Proximity

PrudSys Discoverer

PTEK

QACTIS (Question-Answering for Cross-Lingual Text, Image, and Speech)

QANDA

Query Tree NG/Querytree

QUIET (QUery Improvement Elevation Technique)

QKS Classifier

Radiant Garnet

Rampart

Rational Rose

Raven

Razor

REES

Remedy

Renoir/Renoir+

REPAST

Rigel

RMS

ROSID (Rapid Open Source Intelligence Deployment System)

ROVER

RPS

S-PLUS

SAFE

SaffronNet

Saffron Web

SAIL Labs Media Mining (MM) and Communications Mining (CM) Tool

SameTime

Sandbox

Sander

SANDKEY.

SAS/SAS Enterprise Miner

SAVANT (Systematic Architecture for Virtual Analytic Net-centric Threat Information):

Scenario

SeaLink/SeaWatch

SEAS (Structured Evidence Argumentation System)

See 5/C5.0

Semantic Forests

Semantic Navigator

Semantic Web

SEMESTER

Semio Taxonomy

SERIF (Statistical Entity & Relation Information Finding)

SIAAD (Secure Information Access Analysis & Dissemination)

SIAM (Situational Influence Assessment Module)

Siena

SIFT

SIGINT on Demand

SKYWRITER

Slate

SmartDiscovery

SmartDiscovery Analysis Server

SmartDiscovery Awareness Server

SNAKE (Social Network Analysis for Knowledge Exploitation)

SOCIDS

SoNIA

Soundex

Sparkler

sphinxVision

SPIRE/Themeview

Springtide

Spotfire Pro

SPSS/Clementine

SpyGLAS

SS7

SSNAStandpoint

Starlight

StarTree

STK (Surge Toolkit)

Strategic Player

STRONG ANGEL

Subdue

SUMMAC (Summarization Analysis Conference)

Suspect Finder

Swarm

Sybase

Syllogic Data Mining

Symphony

SyNERA

Synergist

System Dynamic Modeling

SYSTRAN

TACS

TAG Manager (Thematic Argument Group Manager)

TAIC (Text Analysis International Corporation)

TAPAS (Threat Anticipation Program Agent-Based Simulation of Terrorist Motivations, Objectives and Strategies)

TEES (Trainable Evidence Extraction System)

Tel-Scope

TER (The Easy Reasoner)

TERQAS (Time and Event Recognition for Question Answering Systems)

Teradata

TextWise

Themelink

ThingFinder

THREADS (Threat HUMINT Reporting, Evaluation, Analysis, and Display System)

Threat Tracker

TILADS (Terrorist Identification Linkage Analysis Database)

Timewall

TIMEX

Tina Tool

Tinman

TIRT

TKT (Tacit Knowledge Toolkit)

TMODS (Terrorist Modus Operandi Detection System)

TOLLS

Tom Sawyer

TouchGraph

Trailblazer

TravelNet

TRIDENT

TRIST (“The Rapid Information Scanning Tool”)

Trusted Wisdom

TruTalk

TTKB

Ucinet

UWIL

Vantage Point

Verity Indexer

Verity K2E (Verity K2 Enterprise)

Verity Locales

Verity Profiler

Verona

VIA Repository

Viceroy

Virtual Situation Book

Viscovery SOMine

Visual Insights ADVIZOR

Visual Links

VisualMine

ViTAP

VizServer

VKB (Virtual Knowledge Base) FINTEL ISM

WAEWarlord

Watchtower

Watson Pro

Webster

Webtas (Web-based Time Line Analysis System)

WilmaScope

Windgrinder/WnGrinder

Wired

Wrangler

XMB (XML Metadata Browser)

XpertRule Miner

Yellowstone



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