Accepted for publication:
Steven E. Jones, (2006). "Why Indeed did the WTC Buildings Collapse?,"
The Hidden History of 9-11-2001, Research in Political Economy, Volume 23, P.
Zarembka, editor, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2006.
Why Indeed Did the WTC Buildings Collapse?
By Steven E. Jones
Department of Physics and Astronomy
Brigham Young University
Provo, UT 84604
In writing this paper, I call for a serious investigation of the hypothesis
that WTC 7 and the Twin Towers were brought down, not just by damage and fires,
but through the use of pre-positioned explosives. I consider the official FEMA,
NIST, and 9-11 Commission reports that fires plus damage alone caused complete
collapses of all three buildings. And I present evidence for the explosive-demolition
hypothesis, which is suggested by the available data, testable and falsifiable,
and yet has not been analyzed in any of the reports funded by the US government.
Let’s start with the collapse of the 47-story WTC 7, which was never
hit by a jet. I ask you to take a minute to look at the collapse of this building
as a basis for discussion.
WTC 7: 47 - Story, steel-frame building.
WTC 7 on afternoon of 9-11-01. WTC 7 is the
tall sky-scraper in the back-ground, right. Seen from WTC 1 area
WTC 7 collapsed completely, onto its own footprint
Now that you have seen the still photographs, it is important to the discussion
which follows for you to observe video clips of the collapse of this building,
so go to:
Click on the three photos at the top of this web-site page in order to see the
videos of the collapse of WTC 7. It helps to have sound.
Then consider a video close-up of the same building (SW corner) as its demise
What did you observe?
Symmetry: did the building collapse straight down (nearly symmetrically) –
or did it topple over?
Speed: How fast did the building fall? (Students and I measure less than 6.6
seconds; time it!)
Smoke/debris-jets: Did you observe puffs of smoke/debris coming out of the
building? Please note for yourself the sequence and fast timing of observed
puffs or "squibs." Note that reference to web pages is used in this
paper due largely to the importance of viewing motion picture clips, thus enhancing
consideration of the laws of motion and physics generally. High-quality photographs
showing details of the collapses of WTC 7 and the WTC Towers can be found in
books (Hufschmid, 2002; Paul and Hoffman, 2004), magazines (Hoffman, 2005; Baker,
2005) and at http://911research.wtc7.net/wtc/evidence/photos/collapses.html.
My reasons for advancing the explosive-demolition hypothesis while challenging
the "official" fire-caused collapse hypothesis are these:
1. As you observed, WTC 7 collapsed rapidly and symmetrically
-- even though fires were randomly scattered in the building. WTC 7 fell about
seven hours after the Towers collapsed, even though no major persistent fires
were visible. There were twenty-four huge steel support columns inside WTC 7
as well as huge trusses, arranged asymmetrically, along with approximately 57
perimeter columns. (FEMA, 2002, chapter 5.) A symmetrical collapse, as observed,
evidently requires the simultaneous "pulling" of most or all of the
support columns. The Second Law of Thermodynamics implies that the likelihood
of complete and symmetrical collapse due to random fires as in the "official"
theory is small, since asymmetrical failure is so much more likely. On the other
hand, a major goal of controlled demolition using explosives is the complete
and symmetrical collapse of buildings.
Concluding remarks in the FEMA report on the WTC 7 collapse lend support
to my arguments:
The specifics of the fires in WTC 7 and how they caused the building to
collapse ["official theory"] remain unknown at this time. Although
the total diesel fuel on the premises contained massive potential energy,
the best hypothesis [fire/damage-caused collapse] has only a low probability
of occurrence. Further research, investigation, and analyses are needed to
resolve this issue. (FEMA, 2002, chapter 5; emphasis added.)
That is precisely my point: further investigation and analyses are needed, including
consideration of the controlled-demolition hypothesis which is neglected in
all of the government reports (FEMA, NIST and 9-11 Commission reports). Note
that the 9-11 Commission report does not even mention the collapse of WTC 7
on 9-11-01. (Commission, 2004) This is a striking omission of data highly relevant
to the question of what really happened on 9-11.
2. A New York Times article entitled "Engineers
are baffled over the collapse of 7 WTC; Steel members have been partly evaporated,"
provides relevant data.
Experts said no building like it [WTC7], a modern, steel-reinforced
high-rise, had ever collapsed because of an uncontrolled fire. (Glanz,
2001; emphasis added.)
That’s correct – no such steel-beam building had ever before (or
since) completely collapsed due to fires! However, such complete, symmetrical
collapses have indeed occurred many times before -- all of them due to pre-positioned
explosives in a procedure called "implosion" or controlled demolition.
What a surprise, then, for such an occurrence in downtown Manhattan— three
skyscrapers completely collapsed on the same day, September 11, 2001.
Engineers have been trying to figure out exactly what happened and whether
they should be worried about other buildings like it around the country…
Most of the other buildings in the [area] stood despite suffering damage of
all kinds, including fire... 'Fire and the structural damage …would
not explain steel members in the debris pile that appear to have been partly
evaporated’, Dr. [Jonathan] Barnett said. (Glanz, 2001; emphasis
The observed "partly evaporated" steel members is particularly upsetting
to the official theory, since fires involving paper, office materials, even
diesel fuel, cannot generate temperatures anywhere near the 5,000+ oF needed
to "evaporate" steel. However, thermite, RDX and other commonly-used
explosives can readily slice through steel (thus cutting the support columns
simultaneously in an explosive demolition) and reach the required temperatures.
(It is possible that some other chemical reactions were involved which might
proceed at lesser temperatures.) This mystery needs to be explored – but
is not mentioned in the "official" 9-11 Commission or NIST reports.
3.There are several published observations of molten
metal in the basements of all three buildings, WTC 1, 2 ("Twin
Towers") and 7. For example, Dr. Keith Eaton toured Ground Zero and stated
in The Structural Engineer,
'They showed us many fascinating slides’ [Eaton] continued, 'ranging
from molten metal which was still red hot
weeks after the event, to 4-inch thick steel plates sheared and bent in the
disaster’. (Structural Engineer, September 3, 2002, p. 6; emphasis added.)
The observation of molten metal at Ground Zero was emphasized publicly by Leslie
Robertson, the structural engineer responsible for the design of the World Trade
Center Towers, who reported that "As of 21 days after the attack, the fires
were still burning and molten steel was still running." (Williams, 2001,
p. 3; emphasis added.)
Sarah Atlas was part of New Jersey's Task Force One Urban Search and Rescue
and was one of the first on the scene at Ground Zero with her canine partner
Anna. She reported in Penn Arts and Sciences, summer 2002,
'Nobody's going to be alive.' Fires burned and molten steel flowed in the pile
of ruins still settling beneath her feet. (Penn, 2002; emphasis added.)
Dr. Allison Geyh was one of a team of public health investigators from Johns
Hopkins who visited the WTC site after 9-11. She reported in the Late Fall 2001
issue of Magazine of Johns Hopkins Public Health, "In some pockets now
being uncovered they are finding molten steel." Further information on
the subject is available at http://globalresearch.ca.myforums.net/viewtopic.php?p=11663.
Thus, molten metal was repeatedly observed and formally reported in the rubble
piles of the WTC Towers and WTC 7, metal that looked like molten steel. However,
scientific analysis, using for example X-ray fluorescence, would be needed to
ascertain the actual composition of the molten metal.
I maintain that these published observations are consistent with the use of
the high-temperature thermite reaction, used to cut or demolish steel. Thermite
is a mixture of iron oxide and aluminum powder. The end products of the thermite
reaction are aluminum oxide and molten iron. So the thermite reaction generates
molten iron directly, and is hot enough to melt and even evaporate steel which
it contacts while reacting. On the other hand, falling buildings (absent explosives)
have insufficient directed energy to result in melting of large quantities of
metal. The government reports admit that the building fires were insufficient
to melt steel beams -- then where did the molten metal come from? Metals expert
Dr. Frank Gayle (working with NIST) stated:
Your gut reaction would be the jet fuel is what made the fire so
very intense, a lot of people figured that's what melted the steel. Indeed
it did not, the steel did not melt. (Field, 2005; emphasis added.)
None of the official reports tackles this mystery. Yet this is evidently a
significant clue to what caused the Towers and WTC 7 to collapse. So I would
very much like to see an analysis of the elemental composition of the metal,
and could do this myself if a small sample were made available according to
scientific courtesy. Any reader who knows of chemical analyses or even photographs
of this molten metal found below the rubble piles of WTC 1, 2 and 7 is invited
to speak out and contact the author. This could lead to an experiment
4. Horizontal puffs of smoke and debris are observed emerging
from WTC-7 on upper floors, in regular sequence, just as the building starts
to collapse. (The reader may wish to view the close-up video clip again.) The
upper floors have not moved relative to one another yet, as one can verify from
the videos. In addition, the timing between the puffs is less than 0.2 seconds
so air-expulsion due to collapsing floors is excluded. Free-fall time for a
floor to fall down to the next floor is significantly longer than 0.2 seconds:
the equation for free fall, y = ½ gt2, yields a little over 0.6 seconds,
as this is near the initiation of the collapse.
However, the presence of such "squibs" proceeding up the side of
the building is common when pre-positioned explosives are used, as can be observed
The same site shows that rapid timing between explosive squibs is also common.
(It is instructive to view several of the implosion videos at this web site.)
Thus, squibs as observed during the collapse of WTC 7 going up the side of the
building in rapid sequence provide additional significant evidence for the use
of pre-placed explosives. Regarding this highly-secure building, a NY Times
article entitled "Secretive C.I.A. Site in New York was Destroyed on Sept.
11," provides an intriguing puzzle piece:
The C.I.A.'s undercover New York station was in the 47-story building at
7 World Trade Center… All of the agency's employees at the site were
safely evacuated… The intelligence agency's employees were able to watch
from their office windows while the twin towers burned just before they evacuated
their own building. (Risen, 2001)
5. The official FEMA 9-11 report admits a striking anomaly
regarding the North Tower collapse:
Review of videotape recordings of the collapse taken from various angles
indicates that the transmission tower on top of the structure began to move
downward and laterally slightly before movement was evident at the exterior
wall. This suggests that collapse began with one or more failures
in the central core area of the building. (FEMA, 2002, chapter 2;
North Tower showing antenna (top) at beginning
Yes, we can see for ourselves that the antenna drops first from videos of the
North Tower collapse. (See http://911research.wtc7.net/wtc/evidence/videos/wtc1_close_frames.html;
A NY Times article also notes this behavior:
The building stood for more than an hour and a half. Videos of the north
tower's collapse appear to show that its television antenna began to drop
a fraction of a second before the rest of the building. The observations suggest
that the building's steel core somehow gave way first…
(Glanz and Lipton, 2002; emphasis added)
But how? What caused the 47 enormous steel core columns of this building (which
supported the antenna) to give way nearly simultaneously? That mystery was raised
by the FEMA report (FEMA, 2002, chapter 2) and the New York Times (Glanz and
Lipton, 2002) yet not solved in any official report (FEMA, 2002; Commission,
2004; NIST, 2005). The odd behavior was not even mentioned in the final NIST
report (NIST, 2005), but some of us have not forgotten.
Could random fires burning office materials in the building account for a near-simultaneous
"pulling" of these core supports? Certainly such an event would have
exceedingly low probability. Again, use of pre-positioned explosives to cut
the core columns first (standard demolition practice) provides a simple yet
elegant explanation for the observation, satisfying the "Occam’s
razor" test (Jones, 2005).
6. Multiple loud explosions in rapid sequence were
heard and reported by numerous observers in and near the WTC Towers, consistent
with explosive demolition. Firemen and others described flashes and explosions
in upper floors near where the plane entered, and in lower floors of WTC 2 just
prior to its collapse, far below the region where the plane had struck the tower
(Dwyer, 2005). For instance, at the start of the collapse of the South Tower
a Fox News anchor reported:
There is an explosion at the base of the building… white smoke
from the bottom… something happened at the base of the building!
Then another explosion." (De Grand Pre, 2002, emphasis added.)
Firefighter Edward Cachia independently reported:
[We] thought there was like an internal detonation, explosives, because
it went in succession, boom, boom, boom, boom, and then the tower came down…It
actually gave at a lower floor, not the floor where the plane hit.
(Dwyer, 2005; emphasis added.)
And assistant fire commissioner Stephen Gregory provides additional insights:
When I looked in the direction of the Trade Center before it came down, before
No. 2 came down, ..I saw low-level flashes. In my conversation with Lieutenant
Evangelista, never mentioning this to him, he questioned me and asked me if
I saw low-level flashes in front of the building, and I agreed with him because
I thought -- at that time I didn't know what it was. I mean, it could have
been as a result of the building collapsing, things exploding, but I saw a
flash flash flash and then it looked like the building came down.
Q. Was that on the lower level of the building or up where the fire
A. No, the lower level of the building. You know like when they demolish
a building, how when they blow up a building, when it falls down? That's what
I thought I saw. And I didn't broach the topic to him, but he asked
me. He said I don't know if I'm crazy, but I just wanted to ask you because
you were standing right next to me… He said did you see any
flashes? I said, yes, well, I thought it was just me. He said no, I saw them,
too. (Dwyer, 2005, Assistant Commissioner Stephen Gregory FDNY WCT2
File No. 91 10008; emphasis added.)
It is highly unlikely that jet fuel was present to generate such explosions
especially on lower floors, and long after the planes hit the buildings. Dr.
Shyam Sunder, Lead Investigator for NIST stated: "The jet fuel probably
burned out in less than 10 minutes." (Field, 2005) On the other hand, pre-positioned
explosives provide a plausible and simple explanation for the observations,
satisfying Occam’s razor (Jones, 2005). Thus, it cannot be said that "no
evidence" can be found for the use of explosives. This serious matter needs
to be treated as a plausible scientific hypothesis and thoroughly investigated.
7. The horizontal ejection of steel beams for hundreds of
feet and the pulverization of concrete to flour-like powder, observed clearly
in the collapses of the WTC towers, provides further evidence for the use of
explosives – as well-explained in http://911research.wtc7.net/talks/towers/index.html.
(See also, Griffin, 2004, chapter 2.)
North Tower during top-down collapse. Notice
mysterious squibs far below pulverization region.
Unlike WTC7, the twin towers appear to have been exploded "top-down"
rather than proceeding from the bottom – which is unusual for controlled
demolition but clearly possible, depending on the order in which explosives are
detonated. That is, explosives may have been placed on higher floors of the towers
and exploded via radio signals so as to have early explosions near the region
where the plane entered the tower. Certainly this hypothesis ought to be seriously
considered in an independent investigation using all available data.
8. I totally agree with the urgent yet reasoned assessment
of expert fire-protection engineers, as boldly editorialized in the journal
Respected members of the fire protection engineering community are beginning
to raise red flags, and a resonating [result] has emerged: The structural
damage from the planes and the explosive ignition of jet fuel in themselves
were not enough to bring down the towers.
Fire Engineering has good reason to believe that the "official
investigation" blessed by FEMA… is a half-baked farce that may
already have been commandeered by political forces whose primary
interests, to put it mildly, lie far afield of full disclosure. Except for
the marginal benefit obtained from a three-day, visual walk-through of evidence
sites conducted by ASCE investigation committee members- described by one
close source as a "tourist trip"-no one's checking the evidence
Some citizens are taking to the streets to protest the investigation
sellout. Sally Regenhard, for one, wants to know why and how the
building fell as it did upon her unfortunate son Christian, an FDNY probationary
firefighter. And so do we.
Clearly, there are burning questions that need answers. Based on
the incident's magnitude alone, a full-throttle, fully resourced, forensic
investigation is imperative. More important, from a moral standpoint, [are
considerations] for the… present and future generations…
(Manning, 2002; emphasis added).
9. The occurrence of nearly symmetrical, straight-down and
complete collapses of the WTC 7 and the Towers is particularly upsetting to
the "official" theory that random fires plus damage
caused all these collapses. Even with explosives, achieving such results requires
a great deal of pre-planning and expertise.
The main challenge in bringing a building down is controlling which
way it falls. Ideally, a blasting crew will be able to tumble
the building over on one side, into a parking lot or other open area.
This sort of blast is the easiest to execute [favored by the Law of Increasing
Entropy]. Tipping a building over is something like felling a tree. To topple
the building to the north, the blasters detonate explosives on the north side
of the building first…
Sometimes, though, a building is surrounded by structures that must be preserved.
In this case, the blasters proceed with a true implosion, demolishing
the building so that it collapses straight down into its own footprint
(the total area at the base of the building). This feat requires such
skill that only a handful of demolition companies in the world will attempt
it. [Again, consistent with the Second Law of Thermodynamics.]
Blasters approach each project a little differently... [A good] option is
to detonate the columns at the center of the building before the other
columns so that the building's sides fall inward. (Harris, 2000;
Careful observation of the collapse of WTC 7 (video clips above) demonstrates
a downward "kink" near the center of the building first, suggesting
"pulling" of the support columns, then the building’s sides
pull inward such that the building "collapses straight down into its own
footprint" (Harris, 2000). FEMA admitted that WTC 7 collapsed onto a well-confined
The collapse of WTC 7 had a small debris field as the facade was
pulled downward, suggesting an internal failure and implosion…
The average debris field radius was approximately 70 feet. (FEMA, 2002, chapter
Evidently we agree that this was a beautifully done implosion in the collapse
of WTC 7, and yet:
This feat requires such skill that only a handful of demolition companies
in the world will attempt it. (Harris, 2000; emphasis added.)
Consider: Why would terrorists undertake straight-down collapses of WTC7 and
the Towers, when "toppling-over" falls would require much less work
and would do much more damage in downtown Manhattan? And where would they obtain
the necessary skills and access to the buildings for a symmetrical implosion
anyway? The "symmetry data" emphasized here, along with other data,
provide strong evidence for an "inside job." Proof would require additional
investigation and questioning of suspects outside of Al Qaeda.
One of the people a thorough investigation should question under oath would
be demolition expert Mark Loizeaux, president of Controlled Demolition, Inc.
Speaking of the way the WTC buildings came down, he said in an interview:
"If I were to bring the towers down, I would put explosives in the basement
to get the weight of the building to help collapse the structure."
(Bollyn, 2002; emphasis added.)
Just right – "explosives in the basement" agrees with eyewitness
reports of explosions down low in the buildings (point 6 above). Also, this
would be the way to effectively sever the support columns, consistent with both
the initial drop of the communication tower (WTC Tower 1) and the "kink"
in the middle of WTC 7 as its collapse began. Yes, and as president of Controlled
Demolition, Inc., Mr. Loizeaux would know the "handful of demolition companies
in the world [that] will attempt" a symmetrical controlled demolition.
(Harris, 2000) His company is certainly one of these and was hired to do the
rapid clean-up work following the building collapses. A thorough investigation
might also query the owner of WTC7, who received billions in insurance monies
due to the demise of the WTC buildings on 9-11. (Paul and Hoffman, 2004, p.
If you still haven’t looked at the rapid symmetrical collapse of WTC7
for yourself, why not do so now? Watch for the initial "kink" or drop
in the middle, and for the "squibs" blowing in sequence up the side
of the building, and notice the symmetrical, straight-down collapse -- all so
common in controlled demolitions. See for yourself at: http://911research.wtc7.net/talks/wtc/videos.html.
A great deal of further information is presented from a serious scientific point-of-view
at this site (http://911research.wtc7.net/).
10. I presented my objections to the "official"
theory at a seminar at BYU on September 22, 2005, to about sixty people. I also
showed evidence and scientific arguments for the explosive demolition theory.
In attendance were faculty from Physics, Mechanical Engineering, Civil Engineering,
Electrical Engineering, Psychology, Geology, and Mathematics – and perhaps
other departments as I did not recognize all of the people present. Two local
universities were represented (BYU and Utah Valley State College).
The discussion was vigorous and lasted nearly two hours. It ended only when
a university class needed the room. After presenting the material summarized
here, including actually looking at and discussing the collapses of WTC 7 and
the Towers, all except one attendee agreed (by hand-vote) that further investigation
of the WTC collapses was called for. The next day, the dissenting professor
said he had further thought about it and now agreed that more investigation
was needed. He joined the others in hoping that the 6,899 photographs and 6,977
segments of video footage held by NIST plus others held by the FBI would be
released for independent scrutiny; photos largely from private photographers
(NIST, 2005, p. 81). We call for the release of these data to a cross-disciplinary,
preferably international team of scientists and engineers.
11. One attendee to the BYU Seminar on 9-11 anomalies suggested
I review the paper by Bazant and Zhou, which I did. Quoting:
The 110-story towers of the World Trade Center were designed to withstand
as a whole the forces caused by a horizontal impact of a large commercial
aircraft. So why did a total collapse occur? (Bazant and Zhou, 2002,
Correct – jet collisions did not cause collapses – we can agree
on that. MIT’s Thomas Eager also concurs "because the number of columns
lost on the initial impact was not large and the loads were shifted to remaining
columns in this highly redundant structure" (Eager and Musso, 2001).
We continue with Bazant & Zhou:
The conflagration, caused by the aircraft fuel spilled into the structure,
causes the steel of the columns to be exposed to sustained temperatures
apparently exceeding 800oC… (Bazant and Zhou, 2002, p. 2.)
But here we note from the recent NIST report that: "The initial
jet fuel fires themselves lasted at most a few minutes" and office
material fires would burn out within about 20 minutes in a given location. (NIST,
2005; p. 179, emphasis added.) Certainly jet fuel burning was not enough to
raise steel to sustained temperatures above 800oC. But we continue:
Once more than half of the columns in the critical floor.. suffer
buckling (stage 3), the weight of the upper part of the structure
above this floor can no longer be supported, and so the upper part starts
falling down onto the lower part below…"(Bazant and Zhou, 2002,
Bazant & Zhou do not explain how "more than half of the columns in
the critical floor [can] suffer buckling" at the same time to precipitate
the complete and nearly symmetrical collapse observed. There were 47 huge steel
core columns in each Tower, and 24 such support columns in WTC 7 (NIST 2005;
The WTC towers were solidly constructed with
47 steel core columns and 240 perimeter steel beams. 287 steel-columns
Many doubt that random fires/damage could cause them to collapse straight down (official theory), and suspect explosives.
Steel-frame: Huge core (left), enormous Heat
Sink. Notice workers standing on floor pan which is firmly attached to
the interconnected core columns.
They do NOT explain how steel-column temperatures above 800oC were achieved
near-simultaneously due to burning office materials. NIST notes that office
materials in an area burn for about 15-20 minutes, then are consumed away (NIST,
2005, pp. 117, 179). This is evidently not long enough to raise steel column
temperatures above 800oC as required in the Bazant & Zhou model, given the
enormous heat sinks of the structures. And to have three buildings completely
collapse due to this unlikely mechanism on the same day strains credulity. Moreover,
the Final NIST report on the Towers admits:
Of the more than 170 areas examined on 16 perimeter column panels, only three
columns had evidence that the steel reached temperatures above 250ºC…
Only two core column specimens had sufficient paint remaining to make such
an analysis, and their temperatures did not reach 250 ºC. ... Using metallographic
analysis, NIST determined that there was no evidence that any of the
samples had reached temperatures above 600 ºC. (NIST, 2005,
pp. 176-177; emphasis added.)
As for WTC 7, Bazant & Zhou say little but mention in a separate "addendum"
that burning natural gas might have been a source of the needed heat (Bazant
and Zhou, March 2002, p. 370). The FEMA report (FEMA, 2002) addresses this issue:
Early news reports had indicated that a high pressure, 24-inch gas main
was located in the vicinity of the building [WTC 7]; however, this
proved not to be true." (FEMA, 2002, chapter 5; emphasis added)
12. I have read through the hundreds of pages of the Final
NIST report on the collapses of the WTC Towers. (NIST, 2005) It is interesting
to note that NIST "decoupled" and delayed their final report on WTC
7, which is overdue as of this writing (NIST, 2005; NISTb, 2005) I agree with
some of the NIST report; for example:
Both WTC 1 and WTC 2 were stable after the aircraft impact, standing
for 102 min and 56 min, respectively. The global analyses with structural
impact damage showed that both towershad considerable reserve capacity.
This was confirmed by analysis of the post-impact vibration of WTC 2…
where the damaged tower oscillated at a period nearly equal to the first mode
period calculated for the undamaged structure. (NIST, 2005, p. 144; emphasis
At any given location, the duration of [air, not steel] temperatures
near 1,000oC was about 15 min to 20 min. The rest of the time, the calculated
temperatures were near 500oC or below." (NIST, 2005, p. 127,
NIST contracted with Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. to conduct tests
to obtain information on the fire endurance of trusses like those in the WTC
towers… All four test specimens sustained the maximum design load for
approximately 2 hours without collapsing." (NIST, 2005, p. 140,
However, I along with others challenge NIST’s collapse theory. NIST maintains
that all three building collapses were fire-initiated despite the observations
above, particularly the fact that fire endurance tests with actual models did
not result in collapse. In a paper by fire-engineering experts in the UK, we
The basis of NIST’s collapse theory is… column behaviour
in fire... However, we believe that a considerable difference in
downward displace between the  core and  perimeter columns, much
greater than the 300 mm proposed, is required for the collapse theory to hold
true… [Our] lower reliance on passive fire protection is in contrast
to the NIST work where the amount of fire protection on the truss elements
is believed to be a significant factor in defining the time to collapse…
The [proposed effect] is swamped by thermal expansion … Thermal expansion
and the response of the whole frame to this effect has NOT been described
as yet [by NIST]. (Lane and Lamont, 2005.)
I agree with these pointed objections, particularly that the "response
of the whole frame" of each building should be considered, especially heat
transport to the whole frame from localized fires, and that the "core columns
cannot pull the exterior columns in via the floor." (Lane and Lamont, 2005)
The computerized models of the Towers in the NIST study, which incorporate
many features of the buildings and the fires on 9-11-01, are less than convincing.
The Final report states:
The Investigation Team then defined three cases for each building by combining
the middle, less severe, and more severe values of the influential variables.
Upon a preliminary examination of the middle cases, it became clear
that the towers would likely remain standing. The less severe cases were discarded
after the aircraft impact results were compared to observed events. The middle
cases (which became Case A for WTC 1 and Case C for WTC 2) were discarded
after the structural response analysis of major subsystems were compared to
observed events. (NIST, 2005, p. 142; emphasis added.)
The NIST report makes for interesting reading. The less severe cases based on
empirical data were discarded because they did not result in building collapse.
But 'we must save the hypothesis,’ so more severe cases were tried and
the simulations tweaked, as we read in the NIST report:
The more severe case (which became Case B for WTC 1 and Case D for WTC 2)
was used for the global analysis of each tower. Complete sets of simulations
were then performed for Cases B and D. To the extent that the simulations
deviated from the photographic evidence or eyewitness reports [e.g., complete
collapse occurred], the investigators adjusted the input, but only within
the range of physical reality. Thus, for instance,…the pulling forces
on the perimeter columns by the sagging floors were adjusted... (NIST,
2005, p. 142; emphasis added.)
The primary role of the floors in the collapse of the towers was
to provide inward pull forces that induced inward bowing of perimeter columns.
(NIST, 2005, p. 180; emphasis added.)
How fun to tweak the model like that, until the building collapses -- until
one gets the desired result. But the end result of such tweaked computer hypotheticals
is not compelling, sorry gentlemen. Notice that the "the pulling
forces on the perimeter columns by the sagging floors were adjusted"
(NIST, 2005, p. 142; emphasis added) to get the perimeter columns to yield sufficiently
– one suspects these were "adjusted" by hand quite a bit --
even though the UK experts complained that "the core columns cannot
pull the exterior [i.e., perimeter] columns in via the floor."
(Lane and Lamont, 2005; emphasis added.)
I also agree with Kevin Ryan’s objections regarding the NIST study. Kevin
Ryan, at the time a manager at Underwriters Laboratories (UL), makes a point
of the non-collapse of actual WTC-based models in his letter to Frank Gayle
As I'm sure you know, the company I work for certified the steel components
used in the construction of the WTC buildings. In requesting information from
both our CEO and Fire Protection business manager last year… they suggested
we all be patient and understand that UL was working with your team…
I'm aware of UL's attempts to help, including performing tests on
models of the floor assemblies. But the results of these tests… indicate
that the buildings should have easily withstood the thermal stress caused
by… burning [jet fuel, paper, etc.]. (Ryan, 2004)
That models of WTC trusses at Underwriter Laboratories (UL) subjected to fires
did NOT fail is also admitted in the final NIST report:
NIST contracted with Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. to conduct tests
to obtain information on the fire endurance of trusses like those in the WTC
towers…. All four test specimens sustained the maximum design load for
approximately 2 hours without collapsing… The Investigation
Team was cautious about using these results directly in the formulation of
collapse hypotheses. In addition to the scaling issues raised by the test
results, the fires in the towers on September 11, and the resulting exposure
of the floor systems, were substantially different from the conditions in
the test furnaces. Nonetheless, the [empirical test] results established
that this type of assembly was capable of sustaining a large gravity load,
without collapsing, for a substantial period of time relative to the duration
of the fires in any given location on September 11. (NIST, 2005,
p. 141; emphasis added.)
So how does the NIST team justify the WTC collapses, when actual models fail
to collapse and there are zero examples of fire-caused high-rise collapses?
Easy, NIST concocted computer-generated hypotheticals for very "severe"
cases, called cases B and D (NIST, 2005, pp. 124-138). Of course, the details
are rather hidden to us. And they omit consideration of the complete, rapid
and symmetrical nature of the collapses.
Indeed, NIST makes the startling admission in a footnote on page 80 of their
The focus of the Investigation was on the sequence of events from the instant
of aircraft impact to the initiation of collapse for each tower. For brevity
in this report, this sequence is referred to as the "probable collapse
sequence," although it does not actually include the structural
behavior of the tower after the conditions for collapse initiation were reached...(NIST,
2005, p. 80, fn. 12; emphasis added.)
Again, on page 142, NIST admits that their computer simulation only proceeds
until the building is "poised for collapse", thus ignoring any data
from that time on.
The results were a simulation of the structural deterioration
of each tower from the time of aircraft impact to the time at which
the building became unstable, i.e., was poised for collapse. ...(NIST,
2005, p. 142; emphasis added.)
What about the subsequent complete, rapid and symmetrical collapse of the buildings?
What about the observed squibs? What about the antenna dropping first in the
North Tower? What about the molten metal observed in the basement areas in large
pools in both Towers and WTC 7 as well? Never mind all that: NIST did not discuss
at all any data after the buildings were "poised for collapse." Well,
some of us want to look at ALL the data, without computer simulations that are
"adjusted" to make them fit the desired outcome.
13. Kevin Ryan, the whistleblower from Underwriters Laboratories,
did his own statistical analysis in a recent letter regarding the NIST report,
arguing that probabilities of collapse-initiation needed to be calculated (Ryan,
2005). NIST nowhere provides such a likelihood analysis for their non-explosive
collapse model. Ryan’s analysis is that the probability that fires and
damage (the "official theory") could cause the Towers complete collapse
is less than one in a trillion, and the probability is much less still when
the complete collapse of WTC7 is included (Ryan, 2005). Nor does NIST (or FEMA
or the 9-11 Commission) even mention the molten metals found in the basements
of all three buildings (WTC 1, 2 and 7).
So where does that leave us? I strongly agree with Kevin Ryan,
This ["official"] story just does not add up…. That
fact should be of great concern to all Americans…. There is no question
that the events of 9/11 are the emotional driving force behind the War on
Terror. And the issue of the WTC collapse is at the crux of the story of 9/11.
(Ryan, 2004; emphasis added.)
14. The NIST team fairly admits that their report "does
not actually include the structural behavior of the tower after the conditions
for collapse initiation were reached." (NIST, 2005, p. 80, fn.
1; emphasis added.) Quite a confession, since much of the external evidence
for explosive demolition typically comes after collapse initiation, as seen
in cases of acknowledged controlled demolition. (Harris, 2000.)
The rapid fall of the Towers and WTC7 has been analyzed by several engineers/scientists
Griffin, 2004, chapter 2). The roof of WTC 7 (students and I are observing the
southwest corner) falls to earth in less than 6.6 seconds, while an object dropped
from the roof would hit the ground in 6.0 seconds. This follows from t = (2H/g)1/2.
Likewise, the Towers fall very rapidly to the ground, with the upper part falling
nearly as rapidly as ejected debris which provide free-fall references (http://911research.wtc7.net/wtc/analysis/proofs/speed.html;
Griffin, 2004, chapter 2). Where is the delay that must be expected due to conservation
of momentum – one of the foundational Laws of Physics? That is, as upper-falling
floors strike lower floors – and intact steel support columns –
the fall must be significantly impeded by the impacted mass. If the central
support columns remained standing, then the effective resistive mass would be
less, but this is not the case – somehow the enormous support columns
failed/disintegrated along with the falling floor pans.
How do the upper floors fall so quickly, then, and still conserve momentum in
the collapsing buildings? The contradiction is ignored by FEMA, NIST and 9-11
Commission reports where conservation of momentum and the fall times were not
analyzed. The paradox is easily resolved by the explosive demolition hypothesis,
whereby explosives quickly remove lower-floor material including steel support
columns and allow near free-fall-speed collapses (Harris, 2000).
And these explosives also readily account for the turning of the falling Towers
to fine dust as the collapse ensues. Rather than a piling up with shattering
of concrete as we might expect from non-explosive-caused progressive collapse
("official theory"), we find that most of the Towers material (concrete,
carpet, steel, etc.) is converted to flour-like powder WHILE the buildings are
falling. The Towers’ collapses are not a typical implosions, but quite
possibly series of "shock-and-awe" explosions – at least the
evidence points strongly in this direction. The hypothesis ought to be explored
Those who wish to preserve as inviolate fundamental physical laws may wish
to take a closer look. Consider the collapse of the South WTC Tower on 9-11:
Top ~ 34 floors of South Tower topple over.
What happens to the block and its angular momentum?
We observe that approximately 34 upper floors begin to rotate as a block,
to the south and east. They begin to topple over, as favored by the Second Law
of Thermodynamics. The torque due to gravity on this block is enormous, as is
its angular momentum. But then – and this I’m still puzzling over
– this block turned mostly to powder in mid-air! How can we understand
this strange behavior, without explosives? Remarkable, amazing – and demanding
scrutiny since the US government-funded reports failed to analyze this phenomenon.
But, of course, the Final NIST 9-11 report "does not actually include
the structural behavior of the tower after the conditions for collapse initiation
were reached." (NIST, 2005, p. 80, fn. 1; emphasis added.)
Indeed, if we seek the truth of the matter, we must NOT ignore the data to be
observed during the actual collapses of the towers, as the NIST team admits
they did. But why did they do such a non-scientific procedure as to ignore highly-relevant
data? The business smacks of political constraints on what was supposed to be
an "open and thorough" investigation. (See Mooney, 2005.)
So I with others call for an open and thorough investigation. I hope the international
community will rise to the challenge. The field is wide open for considering
the alternative hypothesis outlined here, due to its neglect by studies funded
by the US government.
15. Finally, and by way of review, we consider the variations
and inconsistencies in the fire/damaged-caused collapse models with time. The
earliest model, promoted by various media sources, was that the fires in the
towers were sufficiently hot to actually melt the steel in the buildings, thus
causing their collapse. For example, Chris Wise in a BBC piece spouted out false
notions with great gusto
"It was the fire that killed the buildings. There’s nothing on
earth that could survive those temperatures with that amount of fuel burning…
The columns would have melted, the floors would have melted and eventually
they would have collapsed one on top of the other." (quoted in Paul and
Hoffman, 2004, p. 25)
But as we have seen from later serious studies, the jet fuel burned out within
minutes following impact. Recall the statement of expert Dr. Gayle refuting
the notion that fires in the WTC buildings were sufficiently hot to melt the
Your gut reaction would be the jet fuel is what made the fire so
very intense, a lot of people figured that's what melted the steel. Indeed
it did not, the steel did not melt. (Field, 2005; emphasis added)
Then we have the model of Bazant and Zhou, which requires the majority of the
47 huge steel columns on a floor of each Tower to reach sustained temperatures
of 800oC in order to buckle (not melt) – at the same time. But as we’ve
seen, such temperatures are very difficult to reach while burning office materials,
in these connected steel structures where the heat is wicked away by heat transport.
(Paul and Hoffman, 2004, p. 26) And then to reach the 800oC at the same time,
well, no, this scenario is far too improbable.
So that approach was abandoned by FEMA in the next effort (FEMA, 2002). The
FEMA team largely adopted the theory of Dr. Thomas Eager (Eager and Musso, 2001),
which was also presented in the NOVA presentation "Why the Towers Fell"
(NOVA, 2002). Instead of having the columns fail simultaneously, FEMA has floor
pans in the Towers warp due to fires, and the floor connections to the vertical
beams break, and these floor pans then fall down onto the floor pans below,
initiating "progressive collapse" or pancaking of one floor pan on
another. Very simple. But not so fast – what happens to the enormous core
columns to which the floors were firmly attached? Why don’t these remain
standing like a spindle with the floor pans falling down around them, since
the connections are presumed to have broken away? This interconnected steel
core is founded on bedrock. FEMA does not totally ignore the core:
As the floors collapsed, this left tall freestanding portions of
the exterior wall and possibly central core columns. As the unsupported
height of these freestanding exterior wall elements increased [no mention
of the huge central core anymore!], they buckled at the bolted column splice
connections and also collapsed." (FEMA. 2002; emphasis added)
This approach finally fails to account for the observed collapse of the 47
interconnected core columns which are massive and designed to bear the weight
of the buildings, and it has the striking weakness of requiring the connections
of the floor pans to the vertical columns to break, both at the core and at
the perimeter columns, more or less simultaneously.
That didn’t work out, so NIST goes back to the drawing board. They require
that the connections of the floor pans to vertical columns do NOT fail (contrary
to FEMA’s model), but rather that the floor pans "pull" with
enormous force, sufficient to cause the perimeter columns to significantly pull
in, leading to final failure (contrary to objections of ARUP Fire experts, discussed
above). Also, NIST constructs a computer model -- but realistic cases do not
actually lead to building collapse. So they "adjust" inputs until
the model finally shows collapse initiation for the most severe cases. The details
of these "adjustments" are hidden from us, in their computerized hypotheticals,
but "the hypothesis is saved." NIST also has Underwriters Laboratories
construct models of the WTC trusses, but the models withstand all fires in tests
and do NOT collapse. (See above for details.)
We are left without a compelling fire/damage model, unless one blindly accepts
the NIST computer simulation while ignoring the model fire-tests, which I’m
not willing to do. And none of the "official" models outlined above
accounts for what happens to the buildings AFTER the building is "poised
for collapse" (NIST, 2005, p. 142) – namely the rapid and symmetrical
and complete (no tall-standing central core) collapses. Reports of explosions,
heard and seen, are not discussed. And they ignore the squibs seen ejected from
floors far from where the jets hit – particularly seen in WTC 7 (where
no jet hit at all). Finally, what about that molten metal under the rubble piles
of all three WTC skyscrapers?
Remarkably, the explosive demolition hypothesis accounts for all the available
data rather easily. The core columns on lower floors are cut using explosives,
near-simultaneously, along with explosives detonated up higher so that gravity
acting on now-unsupported floors helps bring down the buildings quickly. The
collapses are thus symmetrical, rapid and complete, with accompanying squibs
-- really very standard stuff for demolition experts. Thermite (whose end product
is molten iron) used on some of the steel beams readily accounts for the molten
metal which then pooled beneath the rubble piles.
I believe this is a straightforward hypothesis, much more probable than the
official hypothesis. It deserves scientific scrutiny, beyond what I have been
able to outline in this treatise. It is quite plausible that explosives were
pre-planted in all three buildings, and set off after the two plane crashes
– which were actually a diversion tactic. The science is sound. The implications
are paradigm-shifting: Muslims are (probably) not to blame for bringing down
the WTC buildings after all.
I have called attention to glaring weaknesses in the "final" reports
funded by the US government and shown evidences for a likely alternative hypothesis.
In particular, the official theory lacks repeatability in that no actual models
or buildings (before or since 9-11-01) have been observed to completely collapse
due to the proposed fire-based mechanisms. On the other hand, dozens of buildings
have been completely and symmetrically demolished through the use of pre-positioned
explosives. The "explosive demolition" hypothesis better satisfies
tests of repeatability and parsimony and therefore is not "junk science."
It ought to be seriously, scientifically investigated and debated.
A truly independent, international panel would consider all viable hypotheses,
including the pre-positioned-explosives theory, guided not by politicized notions
and constraints, but rather by observations and calculations, to reach a scientific
conclusion. Questioning (preferably under oath) of officials who approved the
rapid removal and destruction of the WTC steel beams and columns before they
could be properly analyzed – and others as outlined above – should
proceed in the United States.
None of the government-funded studies have provided serious analyses of the
explosive demolition hypothesis at all. Until the above steps are taken, the
case for accusing ill-trained Muslims of causing all the destruction on 9-11-01
is far from compelling. It just does not add up.
And that fact should be of great concern to Americans and to all those threatened
by American military and security units in the wake of the 9-11 events (Ryan,
2004). Use of powerful, pre-positioned explosives in the WTC buildings would
imply an "inside job" (Griffin, 2004, chapter 2). Clearly, we must
find out what really caused the WTC skyscrapers to collapse as they did.
To this end, NIST must release the 6,899 photographs and over 300 hours of
video recordings – acquired mostly by private parties – which it
admits to holding (NIST, 2005, p. 81). In particular, photos and analyses of
the molten metal (probably not molten steel) observed in the basements of both
Towers and WTC7 need to be brought forth to the international community of scientists
and engineers immediately. Therefore, along with others, I call for the release
of these and all relevant data for scrutiny by a cross-disciplinary, international
team of researchers. The explosive-demolition hypothesis will be considered:
all options will be on the table.
In writing this paper, I call for a serious investigation of the hypothesis
that WTC7 and the Twin Towers were brought down, not just by damage and fires,
but through the carefully planned use of explosives. I have presented ample
evidence for the explosive-demolition hypothesis, which is testable and falsifiable
and yet has not been seriously considered in any of the studies funded by the
At the same time, I acknowledge that other notions have sprung up in the near
vacuum of official consideration of this very plausible hypothesis. These notions
must be subjected to careful scrutiny. I by no means endorse all such ideas.
For example, the video "In Plane Site" promotes the theory that a
"pod" holds a missile under the wing of the 757 which hit WTC 2 (see
Hoffman, 2005; Chertoff, 2005). Careful inspection of the undercarriage of a
standard 757 leads to the explanation that the so-called "pod" was
merely a reflection from the bulged undercarriage (Hoffman, 2005; Chertoff,
2005). I find that the "pod theory" is very weak and distracts from
Again, there is a notion that something other than Boeing jetliners hit the
WTC Towers (see Hoffman, 2005; Chertoff, 2005). Scrutiny of photographs and
videos provides compelling evidence that jets did in fact hit these buildings
(Hoffman, 2005; Chertoff, 2005). A March 2005 article in Popular Mechanics focuses
on poorly-supported claims and proceeds to ridicule the whole "9-11 truth
movement" (Chertoff, 2005). Serious replies to this article have already
been written (Hoffman, 2005; Baker, 2005; serendipity.li/wot/pop_mech/reply_to_popular_mechanics.htm).
Those espousing weak or untestable claims should realize that they may be damaging
the effort to achieve a rational debate of important issues by poisoning the
process with "junk science". Likewise, the notion that the "explosive
demolition" hypothesis should not be debated since it would imply a "conspiracy
theory" departs from good science as well as from numerous historical precedents
of empirical conspiracies (Jones, 2005). Scientific inquiry is not or should
not be dictated by politics (Mooney, 2005).
I gratefully acknowledge comments and contributions by Jim Hoffman and Jeff
Strahl, and Professors Jack Weyland, David Ray Griffin, Steven Benzley, Bryan
Peterson and Harold Stokes.
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