The following timeline describes just a few of the hundreds of atrocities and
crimes committed by the CIA. (1)
CIA operations follow the same recurring script. First, American business interests
abroad are threatened by a popular or democratically elected leader. The people
support their leader because he intends to conduct land reform, strengthen unions,
redistribute wealth, nationalize foreign-owned industry, and regulate business
to protect workers, consumers and the environment. So, on behalf of American
business, and often with their help, the CIA mobilizes the opposition. First
it identifies right-wing groups within the country (usually the military), and
offers them a deal: "We'll put you in power if you maintain a favorable
business climate for us." The Agency then hires, trains and works with
them to overthrow the existing government (usually a democracy). It uses every
trick in the book: propaganda, stuffed ballot boxes, purchased elections, extortion,
blackmail, sexual intrigue, false stories about opponents in the local media,
infiltration and disruption of opposing political parties, kidnapping, beating,
torture, intimidation, economic sabotage, death squads and even assassination.
These efforts culminate in a military coup, which installs a right-wing dictator.
The CIA trains the dictator’s security apparatus to crack down on the
traditional enemies of big business, using interrogation, torture and murder.
The victims are said to be "communists," but almost always they are
just peasants, liberals, moderates, labor union leaders, political opponents
and advocates of free speech and democracy. Widespread human rights abuses follow.
This scenario has been repeated so many times that the CIA actually teaches
it in a special school, the notorious "School of the Americas." (It
opened in Panama but later moved to Fort Benning, Georgia.) Critics have nicknamed
it the "School of the Dictators" and "School of the Assassins."
Here, the CIA trains Latin American military officers how to conduct coups,
including the use of interrogation, torture and murder.
The Association for Responsible Dissent estimates that by 1987, 6 million people
had died as a result of CIA covert operations. (2) Former State Department official
William Blum correctly calls this an "American Holocaust."
The CIA justifies these actions as part of its war against communism. But most
coups do not involve a communist threat. Unlucky nations are targeted for a
wide variety of reasons: not only threats to American business interests abroad,
but also liberal or even moderate social reforms, political instability, the
unwillingness of a leader to carry out Washington’s dictates, and declarations
of neutrality in the Cold War. Indeed, nothing has infuriated CIA Directors
quite like a nation’s desire to stay out of the Cold War.
The ironic thing about all this intervention is that it frequently fails to
achieve American objectives. Often the newly installed dictator grows comfortable
with the security apparatus the CIA has built for him. He becomes an expert
at running a police state. And because the dictator knows he cannot be overthrown,
he becomes independent and defiant of Washington's will. The CIA then finds
it cannot overthrow him, because the police and military are under the dictator's
control, afraid to cooperate with American spies for fear of torture and execution.
The only two options for the U.S at this point are impotence or war. Examples
of this "boomerang effect" include the Shah of Iran, General Noriega
and Saddam Hussein. The boomerang effect also explains why the CIA has proven
highly successful at overthrowing democracies, but a wretched failure at overthrowing
The following timeline should confirm that the CIA as we know it should be
abolished and replaced by a true information-gathering and analysis organization.
The CIA cannot be reformed — it is institutionally and culturally corrupt.
The culture we lost — Secretary of State Henry Stimson
refuses to endorse a code-breaking operation, saying, "Gentlemen do not
read each other’s mail."
COI created — In preparation for World War II, President
Roosevelt creates the Office of Coordinator of Information (COI). General William
"Wild Bill" Donovan heads the new intelligence service.
OSS created — Roosevelt restructures COI into something
more suitable for covert action, the Office of Strategic Services (OSS). Donovan
recruits so many of the nation’s rich and powerful that eventually people
joke that "OSS" stands for "Oh, so social!" or "Oh,
Italy — Donovan recruits the Catholic Church in Rome
to be the center of Anglo-American spy operations in Fascist Italy. This would
prove to be one of America’s most enduring intelligence alliances in the
OSS is abolished — The remaining American information
agencies cease covert actions and return to harmless information gathering and
Operation PAPERCLIP – While other American agencies
are hunting down Nazi war criminals for arrest, the U.S. intelligence community
is smuggling them into America, unpunished, for their use against the Soviets.
The most important of these is Reinhard Gehlen, Hitler’s master spy who
had built up an intelligence network in the Soviet Union. With full U.S. blessing,
he creates the "Gehlen Organization," a band of refugee Nazi spies
who reactivate their networks in Russia. These include SS intelligence officers
Alfred Six and Emil Augsburg (who massacred Jews in the Holocaust), Klaus Barbie
(the "Butcher of Lyon"), Otto von Bolschwing (the Holocaust mastermind
who worked with Eichmann) and SS Colonel Otto Skorzeny (a personal friend of
Hitler’s). The Gehlen Organization supplies the U.S. with its only intelligence
on the Soviet Union for the next ten years, serving as a bridge between the
abolishment of the OSS and the creation of the CIA. However, much of the "intelligence"
the former Nazis provide is bogus. Gehlen inflates Soviet military capabilities
at a time when Russia is still rebuilding its devastated society, in order to
inflate his own importance to the Americans (who might otherwise punish him).
In 1948, Gehlen almost convinces the Americans that war is imminent, and the
West should make a preemptive strike. In the 50s he produces a fictitious "missile
gap." To make matters worse, the Russians have thoroughly penetrated the
Gehlen Organization with double agents, undermining the very American security
that Gehlen was supposed to protect.
Greece — President Truman requests military aid to Greece
to support right-wing forces fighting communist rebels. For the rest of the
Cold War, Washington and the CIA will back notorious Greek leaders with deplorable
human rights records.
CIA created — President Truman signs the National Security
Act of 1947, creating the Central Intelligence Agency and National Security
Council. The CIA is accountable to the president through the NSC — there
is no democratic or congressional oversight. Its charter allows the CIA to "perform
such other functions and duties… as the National Security Council may
from time to time direct." This loophole opens the door to covert action
and dirty tricks.
Covert-action wing created — The CIA recreates a covert
action wing, innocuously called the Office of Policy Coordination, led by Wall
Street lawyer Frank Wisner. According to its secret charter, its responsibilities
include "propaganda, economic warfare, preventive direct action, including
sabotage, antisabotage, demolition and evacuation procedures; subversion against
hostile states, including assistance to underground resistance groups, and support
of indigenous anti-communist elements in threatened countries of the free world."
Italy — The CIA corrupts democratic elections in Italy,
where Italian communists threaten to win the elections. The CIA buys votes,
broadcasts propaganda, threatens and beats up opposition leaders, and infiltrates
and disrupts their organizations. It works -- the communists are defeated.
Radio Free Europe — The CIA creates its first major
propaganda outlet, Radio Free Europe. Over the next several decades, its broadcasts
are so blatantly false that for a time it is considered illegal to publish transcripts
of them in the U.S.
Operation MOCKINGBIRD — The CIA begins recruiting American
news organizations and journalists to become spies and disseminators of propaganda.
The effort is headed by Frank Wisner, Allan Dulles, Richard Helms and Philip
Graham. Graham is publisher of The Washington Post, which becomes a major CIA
player. Eventually, the CIA’s media assets will include ABC, NBC, CBS,
Time, Newsweek, Associated Press, United Press International, Reuters, Hearst
Newspapers, Scripps-Howard, Copley News Service and more. By the CIA’s
own admission, at least 25 organizations and 400 journalists will become CIA
Iran – CIA overthrows the democratically elected Mohammed
Mossadegh in a military coup, after he threatened to nationalize British oil.
The CIA replaces him with a dictator, the Shah of Iran, whose secret police,
SAVAK, is as brutal as the Gestapo.
Operation MK-ULTRA — Inspired by North Korea’s
brainwashing program, the CIA begins experiments on mind control. The most notorious
part of this project involves giving LSD and other drugs to American subjects
without their knowledge or against their will, causing several to commit suicide.
However, the operation involves far more than this. Funded in part by the Rockefeller
and Ford foundations, research includes propaganda, brainwashing, public relations,
advertising, hypnosis, and other forms of suggestion.
Guatemala — CIA overthrows the democratically elected
Jacob Arbenz in a military coup. Arbenz has threatened to nationalize the Rockefeller-owned
United Fruit Company, in which CIA Director Allen Dulles also owns stock. Arbenz
is replaced with a series of right-wing dictators whose bloodthirsty policies
will kill over 100,000 Guatemalans in the next 40 years.
North Vietnam — CIA officer Edward Lansdale spends four
years trying to overthrow the communist government of North Vietnam, using all
the usual dirty tricks. The CIA also attempts to legitimize a tyrannical puppet
regime in South Vietnam, headed by Ngo Dinh Diem. These efforts fail to win
the hearts and minds of the South Vietnamese because the Diem government is
opposed to true democracy, land reform and poverty reduction measures. The CIA’s
continuing failure results in escalating American intervention, culminating
in the Vietnam War.
Hungary — Radio Free Europe incites Hungary to revolt
by broadcasting Khruschev’s Secret Speech, in which he denounced Stalin.
It also hints that American aid will help the Hungarians fight. This aid fails
to materialize as Hungarians launch a doomed armed revolt, which only invites
a major Soviet invasion. The conflict kills 7,000 Soviets and 30,000 Hungarians.
Laos — The CIA carries out approximately one coup per
year trying to nullify Laos’ democratic elections. The problem is the
Pathet Lao, a leftist group with enough popular support to be a member of any
coalition government. In the late 50s, the CIA even creates an "Armee Clandestine"
of Asian mercenaries to attack the Pathet Lao. After the CIA’s army suffers
numerous defeats, the U.S. starts bombing, dropping more bombs on Laos than
all the U.S. bombs dropped in World War II. A quarter of all Laotians will eventually
become refugees, many living in caves.
Haiti — The U.S. military helps "Papa Doc"
Duvalier become dictator of Haiti. He creates his own private police force,
the "Tonton Macoutes," who terrorize the population with machetes.
They will kill over 100,000 during the Duvalier family reign. The U.S. does
not protest their dismal human rights record.
The Bay of Pigs — The CIA sends 1,500 Cuban exiles to
invade Castro’s Cuba. But "Operation Mongoose" fails, due to
poor planning, security and backing. The planners had imagined that the invasion
will spark a popular uprising against Castro -– which never happens. A
promised American air strike also never occurs. This is the CIA’s first
public setback, causing President Kennedy to fire CIA Director Allen Dulles.
Dominican Republic — The CIA assassinates Rafael Trujillo,
a murderous dictator Washington has supported since 1930. Trujillo’s business
interests have grown so large (about 60 percent of the economy) that they have
begun competing with American business interests.
Ecuador — The CIA-backed military forces the democratically
elected President Jose Velasco to resign. Vice President Carlos Arosemana replaces
him; the CIA fills the now vacant vice presidency with its own man.
Congo (Zaire) — The CIA assassinates the democratically
elected Patrice Lumumba. However, public support for Lumumba’s politics
runs so high that the CIA cannot clearly install his opponents in power. Four
years of political turmoil follow.
Dominican Republic — The CIA overthrows the democratically
elected Juan Bosch in a military coup. The CIA installs a repressive, right-wing
Ecuador — A CIA-backed military coup overthrows President
Arosemana, whose independent (not socialist) policies have become unacceptable
to Washington. A military junta assumes command, cancels the 1964 elections,
and begins abusing human rights.
Brazil — A CIA-backed military coup overthrows the democratically
elected government of Joao Goulart. The junta that replaces it will, in the
next two decades, become one of the most bloodthirsty in history. General Castelo
Branco will create Latin America’s first death squads, or bands of secret
police who hunt down "communists" for torture, interrogation and murder.
Often these "communists" are no more than Branco’s political
opponents. Later it is revealed that the CIA trains the death squads.
Indonesia — The CIA overthrows the democratically elected
Sukarno with a military coup. The CIA has been trying to eliminate Sukarno since
1957, using everything from attempted assassination to sexual intrigue, for
nothing more than his declaring neutrality in the Cold War. His successor, General
Suharto, will massacre between 500,000 to 1 million civilians accused of being
"communist." The CIA supplies the names of countless suspects.
Dominican Republic — A popular rebellion breaks out,
promising to reinstall Juan Bosch as the country’s elected leader. The
revolution is crushed when U.S. Marines land to uphold the military regime by
force. The CIA directs everything behind the scenes.
Greece — With the CIA’s backing, the king removes
George Papandreous as prime minister. Papandreous has failed to vigorously support
U.S. interests in Greece.
Congo (Zaire) — A CIA-backed military coup installs
Mobutu Sese Seko as dictator. The hated and repressive Mobutu exploits his desperately
poor country for billions.
The Ramparts Affair — The radical magazine Ramparts
begins a series of unprecedented anti-CIA articles. Among their scoops: the
CIA has paid the University of Michigan $25 million dollars to hire "professors"
to train South Vietnamese students in covert police methods. MIT and other universities
have received similar payments. Ramparts also reveals that the National Students’
Association is a CIA front. Students are sometimes recruited through blackmail
and bribery, including draft deferments.
Greece — A CIA-backed military coup overthrows the government
two days before the elections. The favorite to win was George Papandreous, the
liberal candidate. During the next six years, the "reign of the colonels"
— backed by the CIA — will usher in the widespread use of torture
and murder against political opponents. When a Greek ambassador objects to President
Johnson about U.S. plans for Cypress, Johnson tells him: "Fuck your parliament
and your constitution."
Operation PHEONIX — The CIA helps South Vietnamese agents
identify and then murder alleged Viet Cong leaders operating in South Vietnamese
villages. According to a 1971 congressional report, this operation killed about
20,000 "Viet Cong."
Operation CHAOS — The CIA has been illegally spying
on American citizens since 1959, but with Operation CHAOS, President Johnson
dramatically boosts the effort. CIA agents go undercover as student radicals
to spy on and disrupt campus organizations protesting the Vietnam War. They
are searching for Russian instigators, which they never find. CHAOS will eventually
spy on 7,000 individuals and 1,000 organizations.
Bolivia — A CIA-organized military operation captures
legendary guerilla Che Guevara. The CIA wants to keep him alive for interrogation,
but the Bolivian government executes him to prevent worldwide calls for clemency.
Uruguay — The notorious CIA torturer Dan Mitrione arrives
in Uruguay, a country torn with political strife. Whereas right-wing forces
previously used torture only as a last resort, Mitrione convinces them to use
it as a routine, widespread practice. "The precise pain, in the precise
place, in the precise amount, for the desired effect," is his motto. The
torture techniques he teaches to the death squads rival the Nazis’. He
eventually becomes so feared that revolutionaries will kidnap and murder him
a year later.
Cambodia — The CIA overthrows Prince Sahounek, who is
highly popular among Cambodians for keeping them out of the Vietnam War. He
is replaced by CIA puppet Lon Nol, who immediately throws Cambodian troops into
battle. This unpopular move strengthens once minor opposition parties like the
Khmer Rouge, which achieves power in 1975 and massacres millions of its own
Bolivia — After half a decade of CIA-inspired political
turmoil, a CIA-backed military coup overthrows the leftist President Juan Torres.
In the next two years, dictator Hugo Banzer will have over 2,000 political opponents
arrested without trial, then tortured, raped and executed.
Haiti — "Papa Doc" Duvalier dies, leaving
his 19-year old son "Baby Doc" Duvalier the dictator of Haiti. His
son continues his bloody reign with full knowledge of the CIA.
The Case-Zablocki Act — Congress passes an act requiring
congressional review of executive agreements. In theory, this should make CIA
operations more accountable. In fact, it is only marginally effective.
Cambodia — Congress votes to cut off CIA funds for its
secret war in Cambodia.
Wagergate Break-in — President Nixon sends in a team of burglars to wiretap
Democratic offices at Watergate. The team members have extensive CIA histories,
including James McCord, E. Howard Hunt and five of the Cuban burglars. They
work for the Committee to Reelect the President (CREEP), which does dirty work
like disrupting Democratic campaigns and laundering Nixon’s illegal campaign
contributions. CREEP’s activities are funded and organized by another
CIA front, the Mullen Company.
Chile — The CIA overthrows and assassinates Salvador
Allende, Latin America’s first democratically elected socialist leader.
The problems begin when Allende nationalizes American-owned firms in Chile.
ITT offers the CIA $1 million for a coup (reportedly refused). The CIA replaces
Allende with General Augusto Pinochet, who will torture and murder thousands
of his own countrymen in a crackdown on labor leaders and the political left.
CIA begins internal investigations — William Colby,
the Deputy Director for Operations, orders all CIA personnel to report any and
all illegal activities they know about. This information is later reported to
Watergate Scandal — The CIA’s main collaborating
newspaper in America, The Washington Post, reports Nixon’s crimes long
before any other newspaper takes up the subject. The two reporters, Woodward
and Bernstein, make almost no mention of the CIA’s many fingerprints all
over the scandal. It is later revealed that Woodward was a Naval intelligence
briefer to the White House, and knows many important intelligence figures, including
General Alexander Haig. His main source, "Deep Throat," is probably
one of those.
CIA Director Helms Fired — President Nixon fires CIA
Director Richard Helms for failing to help cover up the Watergate scandal. Helms
and Nixon have always disliked each other. The new CIA director is William Colby,
who is relatively more open to CIA reform.
CHAOS exposed — Pulitzer prize winning journalist Seymour
Hersh publishes a story about Operation CHAOS, the domestic surveillance and
infiltration of anti-war and civil rights groups in the U.S. The story sparks
Angleton fired — Congress holds hearings on the illegal
domestic spying efforts of James Jesus Angleton, the CIA’s chief of counterintelligence.
His efforts included mail-opening campaigns and secret surveillance of war protesters.
The hearings result in his dismissal from the CIA.
House clears CIA in Watergate — The House of Representatives
clears the CIA of any complicity in Nixon’s Watergate break-in.
The Hughes Ryan Act — Congress passes an amendment requiring
the president to report nonintelligence CIA operations to the relevant congressional
committees in a timely fashion.
Australia — The CIA helps topple the democratically
elected, left-leaning government of Prime Minister Edward Whitlam. The CIA does
this by giving an ultimatum to its Governor-General, John Kerr. Kerr, a longtime
CIA collaborator, exercises his constitutional right to dissolve the Whitlam
government. The Governor-General is a largely ceremonial position appointed
by the Queen; the Prime Minister is democratically elected. The use of this
archaic and never-used law stuns the nation.
Angola — Eager to demonstrate American military resolve
after its defeat in Vietnam, Henry Kissinger launches a CIA-backed war in Angola.
Contrary to Kissinger’s assertions, Angola is a country of little strategic
importance and not seriously threatened by communism. The CIA backs the brutal
leader of UNITAS, Jonas Savimbi. This polarizes Angolan politics and drives
his opponents into the arms of Cuba and the Soviet Union for survival. Congress
will cut off funds in 1976, but the CIA is able to run the war off the books
until 1984, when funding is legalized again. This entirely pointless war kills
over 300,000 Angolans.
"The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence" — Victor
Marchetti and John Marks publish this whistle-blowing history of CIA crimes
and abuses. Marchetti has spent 14 years in the CIA, eventually becoming an
executive assistant to the Deputy Director of Intelligence. Marks has spent
five years as an intelligence official in the State Department.
"Inside the Company" — Philip Agee publishes
a diary of his life inside the CIA. Agee has worked in covert operations in
Latin America during the 60s, and details the crimes in which he took part.
Congress investigates CIA wrong-doing — Public outrage
compels Congress to hold hearings on CIA crimes. Senator Frank Church heads
the Senate investigation ("The Church Committee"), and Representative
Otis Pike heads the House investigation. (Despite a 98 percent incumbency reelection
rate, both Church and Pike are defeated in the next elections.) The investigations
lead to a number of reforms intended to increase the CIA’s accountability
to Congress, including the creation of a standing Senate committee on intelligence.
However, the reforms prove ineffective, as the Iran/Contra scandal will show.
It turns out the CIA can control, deal with or sidestep Congress with ease.
The Rockefeller Commission — In an attempt to reduce
the damage done by the Church Committee, President Ford creates the "Rockefeller
Commission" to whitewash CIA history and propose toothless reforms. The
commission’s namesake, Vice President Nelson Rockefeller, is himself a
major CIA figure. Five of the commission’s eight members are also members
of the Council on Foreign Relations, a CIA-dominated organization.
Iran — The CIA fails to predict the fall of the Shah
of Iran, a longtime CIA puppet, and the rise of Muslim fundamentalists who are
furious at the CIA’s backing of SAVAK, the Shah’s bloodthirsty secret
police. In revenge, the Muslims take 52 Americans hostage in the U.S. embassy
Afghanistan — The Soviets invade Afghanistan. The CIA
immediately begins supplying arms to any faction willing to fight the occupying
Soviets. Such indiscriminate arming means that when the Soviets leave Afghanistan,
civil war will erupt. Also, fanatical Muslim extremists now possess state-of-the-art
weaponry. One of these is Sheik Abdel Rahman, who will become involved in the
World Trade Center bombing in New York.
El Salvador — An idealistic group of young military
officers, repulsed by the massacre of the poor, overthrows the right-wing government.
However, the U.S. compels the inexperienced officers to include many of the
old guard in key positions in their new government. Soon, things are back to
"normal" — the military government is repressing and killing
poor civilian protesters. Many of the young military and civilian reformers,
finding themselves powerless, resign in disgust.
Nicaragua — Anastasios Samoza II, the CIA-backed dictator,
falls. The Marxist Sandinistas take over government, and they are initially
popular because of their commitment to land and anti-poverty reform. Samoza
had a murderous and hated personal army called the National Guard. Remnants
of the Guard will become the Contras, who fight a CIA-backed guerilla war against
the Sandinista government throughout the 1980s.
El Salvador — The Archbishop of San Salvador, Oscar
Romero, pleads with President Carter "Christian to Christian" to stop
aiding the military government slaughtering his people. Carter refuses. Shortly
afterwards, right-wing leader Roberto D’Aubuisson has Romero shot through
the heart while saying Mass. The country soon dissolves into civil war, with
the peasants in the hills fighting against the military government. The CIA
and U.S. Armed Forces supply the government with overwhelming military and intelligence
superiority. CIA-trained death squads roam the countryside, committing atrocities
like that of El Mazote in 1982, where they massacre between 700 and 1000 men,
women and children. By 1992, some 63,000 Salvadorans will be killed.
Iran/Contra Begins — The CIA begins selling arms to
Iran at high prices, using the profits to arm the Contras fighting the Sandinista
government in Nicaragua. President Reagan vows that the Sandinistas will be
"pressured" until "they say ‘uncle.’" The CIA’s
Freedom Fighter’s Manual disbursed to the Contras includes instruction
on economic sabotage, propaganda, extortion, bribery, blackmail, interrogation,
torture, murder and political assassination.
Honduras — The CIA gives Honduran military officers
the Human Resource Exploitation Training Manual – 1983, which teaches
how to torture people. Honduras’ notorious "Battalion 316" then
uses these techniques, with the CIA’s full knowledge, on thousands of
leftist dissidents. At least 184 are murdered.
The Boland Amendment — The last of a series of Boland
Amendments is passed. These amendments have reduced CIA aid to the Contras;
the last one cuts it off completely. However, CIA Director William Casey is
already prepared to "hand off" the operation to Colonel Oliver North,
who illegally continues supplying the Contras through the CIA’s informal,
secret, and self-financing network. This includes "humanitarian aid"
donated by Adolph Coors and William Simon, and military aid funded by Iranian
Eugene Hasenfus — Nicaragua shoots down a C-123 transport
plane carrying military supplies to the Contras. The lone survivor, Eugene Hasenfus,
turns out to be a CIA employee, as are the two dead pilots. The airplane belongs
to Southern Air Transport, a CIA front. The incident makes a mockery of President
Reagan’s claims that the CIA is not illegally arming the Contras.
Iran/Contra Scandal — Although the details have long
been known, the Iran/Contra scandal finally captures the media’s attention
in 1986. Congress holds hearings, and several key figures (like Oliver North)
lie under oath to protect the intelligence community. CIA Director William Casey
dies of brain cancer before Congress can question him. All reforms enacted by
Congress after the scandal are purely cosmetic.
Haiti — Rising popular revolt in Haiti means that "Baby
Doc" Duvalier will remain "President for Life" only if he has
a short one. The U.S., which hates instability in a puppet country, flies the
despotic Duvalier to the South of France for a comfortable retirement. The CIA
then rigs the upcoming elections in favor of another right-wing military strongman.
However, violence keeps the country in political turmoil for another four years.
The CIA tries to strengthen the military by creating the National Intelligence
Service (SIN), which suppresses popular revolt through torture and assassination.
Panama — The U.S. invades Panama to overthrow a dictator
of its own making, General Manuel Noriega. Noriega has been on the CIA’s
payroll since 1966, and has been transporting drugs with the CIA’s knowledge
since 1972. By the late 80s, Noriega’s growing independence and intransigence
have angered Washington… so out he goes.
Haiti — Competing against 10 comparatively wealthy candidates,
leftist priest Jean-Bertrand Aristide captures 68 percent of the vote. After
only eight months in power, however, the CIA-backed military deposes him. More
military dictators brutalize the country, as thousands of Haitian refugees escape
the turmoil in barely seaworthy boats. As popular opinion calls for Aristide’s
return, the CIA begins a disinformation campaign painting the courageous priest
as mentally unstable.
The Gulf War — The U.S. liberates Kuwait from Iraq.
But Iraq’s dictator, Saddam Hussein, is another creature of the CIA. With
U.S. encouragement, Hussein invaded Iran in 1980. During this costly eight-year
war, the CIA built up Hussein’s forces with sophisticated arms, intelligence,
training and financial backing. This cemented Hussein’s power at home,
allowing him to crush the many internal rebellions that erupted from time to
time, sometimes with poison gas. It also gave him all the military might he
needed to conduct further adventurism — in Kuwait, for example.
The Fall of the Soviet Union — The CIA fails to predict
this most important event of the Cold War. This suggests that it has been so
busy undermining governments that it hasn’t been doing its primary job:
gathering and analyzing information. The fall of the Soviet Union also robs
the CIA of its reason for existence: fighting communism. This leads some to
accuse the CIA of intentionally failing to predict the downfall of the Soviet
Union. Curiously, the intelligence community’s budget is not significantly
reduced after the demise of communism.
Economic Espionage — In the years following the end
of the Cold War, the CIA is increasingly used for economic espionage. This involves
stealing the technological secrets of competing foreign companies and giving
them to American ones. Given the CIA’s clear preference for dirty tricks
over mere information gathering, the possibility of serious criminal behavior
is very great indeed.
Haiti — The chaos in Haiti grows so bad that President
Clinton has no choice but to remove the Haitian military dictator, Raoul Cedras,
on threat of U.S. invasion. The U.S. occupiers do not arrest Haiti’s military
leaders for crimes against humanity, but instead ensure their safety and rich
retirements. Aristide is returned to power only after being forced to accept
an agenda favorable to the country’s ruling class.
In a speech before the CIA celebrating its 50th anniversary, President Clinton
said: "By necessity, the American people will never know the full story
of your courage."
Clinton’s is a common defense of the CIA: namely, the American people
should stop criticizing the CIA because they don’t know what it really
does. This, of course, is the heart of the problem in the first place. An agency
that is above criticism is also above moral behavior and reform. Its secrecy
and lack of accountability allows its corruption to grow unchecked.
Furthermore, Clinton’s statement is simply untrue. The history of the
agency is growing painfully clear, especially with the declassification of historical
CIA documents. We may not know the details of specific operations, but we do
know, quite well, the general behavior of the CIA. These facts began emerging
nearly two decades ago at an ever-quickening pace. Today we have a remarkably
accurate and consistent picture, repeated in country after country, and verified
from countless different directions.
The CIA’s response to this growing knowledge and criticism follows a
typical historical pattern. (Indeed, there are remarkable parallels to the Medieval
Church’s fight against the Scientific Revolution.) The first journalists
and writers to reveal the CIA’s criminal behavior were harassed and censored
if they were American writers, and tortured and murdered if they were foreigners.
(See Philip Agee’s On the Run for an example of early harassment.) However,
over the last two decades the tide of evidence has become overwhelming, and
the CIA has found that it does not have enough fingers to plug every hole in
the dike. This is especially true in the age of the Internet, where information
flows freely among millions of people. Since censorship is impossible, the Agency
must now defend itself with apologetics. Clinton’s "Americans will
never know" defense is a prime example.
Another common apologetic is that "the world is filled with unsavory characters,
and we must deal with them if we are to protect American interests at all."
There are two things wrong with this. First, it ignores the fact that the CIA
has regularly spurned alliances with defenders of democracy, free speech and
human rights, preferring the company of military dictators and tyrants. The
CIA had moral options available to them, but did not take them.
Second, this argument begs several questions. The first is: "Which American
interests?" The CIA has courted right-wing dictators because they allow
wealthy Americans to exploit the country’s cheap labor and resources.
But poor and middle-class Americans pay the price whenever they fight the wars
that stem from CIA actions, from Vietnam to the Gulf War to Panama. The second
begged question is: "Why should American interests come at the expense
of other peoples’ human rights?"
The CIA should be abolished, its leadership dismissed and its relevant members
tried for crimes against humanity. Our intelligence community should be rebuilt
from the ground up, with the goal of collecting and analyzing information. As
for covert action, there are two moral options. The first one is to eliminate
covert action completely. But this gives jitters to people worried about the
Adolf Hitlers of the world. So a second option is that we can place covert action
under extensive and true democratic oversight. For example, a bipartisan Congressional
Committee of 40 members could review and veto all aspects of CIA operations
upon a majority or super-majority vote. Which of these two options is best may
be the subject of debate, but one thing is clear: like dictatorship, like monarchy,
unaccountable covert operations should die like the dinosaurs they are.
1. All history concerning CIA intervention in foreign countries is summarized
from William Blum’s encyclopedic work, Killing Hope: U.S. Military and
CIA Interventions since World War II (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1995).
Sources for domestic CIA operations come from Jonathan Vankin and John Whalen’s
The 60 Greatest Conspiracies of All Time (Secaucus, N.J.: Citadel Press, 1997).
2. Coleman McCarthy, "The Consequences of Covert Tactics" Washington
Post, December 13, 1987.